"Thermokinetic modeling of phase transformation in the laser powder deposition process", Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A
Authors: E Foroozmehr, R Kovacevic
Address: Vol. 40, No. 8, Page: 1935-1943, 2009
A finite element model coupled with a thermokinetic model is developed to predict the phase transformation of the laser deposition of AISI 4140 on a substrate with the same material. Four different deposition patterns, long-bead, short-bead, spiral-in, and spiral-out, are used to cover a similar area. Using a finite element model, the temperature history of the laser powder deposition (LPD) process is determined. The martensite transformation as well as martensite tempering is considered to calculate the final fraction of martensite, ferrite, cementite, ε-carbide, and retained austenite. Comparing the surface hardness topography of different patterns reveals that path planning is a critical parameter in laser surface modification. The predicted results are in a close agreement with the experimental results.